1. A highly effective means for improving the strength of steel is through grain refinement. The grain refinement also will lower the ductile-brittle transition. Different grain sizes govern the yielding or failure of the grain refinement in the steel. The different grain sizes affect the not only the yielding and failure but also the dislocation among the grain at the nanolevel.
2. A single crystal silicon is grown through high-temperatures. Usually a type of furnace is used. The silicon gets melted. After this has been completed the crystal begins to grow. To grow there is a "seed" crystal placed into the silicon and is drawn slowly from the high-temperature furnace (crucible). After the pattern for growing the crystal has been placed by the seed a crystal called an ingot is formed. For the solar industry this ingot is cut into very thin Solar Cell Wafers.